When temperature is constant (for o-level), when a fixed mass of gas (fixed number of air molecules) is compressed in a closed system (e.g. piston), the volume V decreases and pressure P increases, and vice versa.
But when you multiply pressure and volume, PV, it is always a constant.
PV = constant
Hence we can always equate the PV of the first scenario = to the PV of the second scenario, provided there is no addition or removal of air molecules from the system.
Hence, you have P1V1 = P2V2
The followings are 4 different questions which require this concept to solve. Do revise them.
Solutions: Option D (refer to the worked solutions below)
Solutions: Option D
Solution: Option C
Drawing ray diagrams for converging lens come in many forms. But the basic concepts needed are the 3 rays (which have rules to follow) to locate the image. The following ray diagrams for the 4 scenarios must be learned well, together with the respective image characteristics and applications.
With the basic concepts learned, when questions are asked in different ways, you should be able to draw the ray diagrams. Refer to some different ray diagram questions below and their video tutorials.
Click the followings for other lens ray diagram questions. https://evantoh23.wordpress.com/2010/11/09/20101109converging-lens-important-concepts/