The 3 states of matter – solid, liquid and gas.
In general, when a body is heated, it expands and volume increases. The mass remains the same. Since density = mass/volume, its density decreases (less dense). For instance, warm air rises as it is less dense. In terms of kinetic theory, the particles will increase in kinetic energy. The average spacing between the particles increases (assuming not in a closed container).
Likewise, when a body is cooled, the opposite occurs. The body contracts and volume decreases. It becomes denser.
Due to the differences in particles arrangement of solid, liquid and gas, each expands by different amount when heated and vice versa. Which expands the most when heated and contracts the most when cooled?
The following demonstration of the ‘Pee Boy’ is a good video to show the concepts.
<p><a href=”https://vimeo.com/25123645″>Pee Boy</a> from <a href=”https://vimeo.com/user7367248″>evantoh</a> on <a href=”https://vimeo.com”>Vimeo</a>.</p>
The tiny hole at the penis is too small for any water to enter on its own. So using thermal transfer in the different states, the following steps are taken:
- Put the hollow empty boy into the hot water. [air inside the boy expands more than the solid ceramic, hence bubbles are seen coming out of the hole]
- Put the hollow empty boy now into the cold water. [The air inside contracts and volume decreases. This creates a low pressure and water is then sucked into the boy through the tiny hole]
- Place the boy on a platform. [The boy is only partially filled with water. The head portion is filled air while the bottom portion is filled with water]
- Pour hot water over the head. [As the whole boy is heated by the running hot water, the air in the head portion expands much more than the water at the bottom and the solid ceramic of the boy. Hence the air pressure increases and it pushes the water out of the boy]
- And he pees!!! Quite powerful indeed!
A fuse is a safety device that is added to an electrical circuit to prevent excessive current flow. It has the same function as a circuit breaker. However , a fuse must be replaced once it melts (blows). A circuit breaker can be reset after it trips.
Electric symbol for fuse
Fuse is connected to the live wire. It consists of a short piece of thin wire. In the event of an electrical fault, when a current that exceeds its fuse rating flows through, it heats up and melts (fuse blows). When the fuse blows, the electrical appliance is disconnected from the high potential of the live wire (usually 240 V). Hence it protects the appliance and the user.
The choice of fuse is always slightly higher than the actual current flowing through the appliance, and it has to be a whole number. Typical household fuses off the shelves are rated at 1 A, 2 A, 3 A, 5 A, 10 A and 13 A. But in theory, we just state a fuse which is slightly higher and is a whole number.
<p><a href=”https://vimeo.com/24927865″>Fuse</a> from <a href=”https://vimeo.com/user7367248″>evantoh</a> on <a href=”https://vimeo.com”>Vimeo</a>.</p>