# Evan's Space

## Simple electric circuit set up

This simple circuit involves a resistance wire on the meter rule and the use of jockey tapping at different length L on the resistance wire.

Note that this is not a potential divider. Rather this set up works like a variable resistor (rheostat) in the circuit. When the switch is closed (jockey NOT tapping on resistance wire), there is no current flowing as voltmeter (infinity resistance) is connected in series with the ammeter and the battery. Hence the voltmeter is showing the battery’s electromotive force (emf) of 3.0 V.

When the switch is closed and the jockey is tapped on the resistance wire on the ruler, the longer the L (length of resistance wire), the higher the resistance of the circuit, the higher the potential difference (voltmeter) across the resistance wire and the smaller the current through the ammeter. Hence the tapping of the jockey on the resistance wire is similar to adjusting the resistance on the variable resistor.

(If you are wondering why the voltmeter is not showing the emf of the battery when the jockey touches the resistance wire L, it is because in reality there is internal resistance in the battery or even in the connecting copper wire. For olevel theory we assume no internal battery resistance or resistance in copper wire or ammeter).

To learn how to set up the experiment, refer to the video below.

Both ammeter and voltmeter have two terminals, (positive and negative). The conventional current must flow into the positive terminal (+) of the meters and out of the negative terminal (-).  If the connection is the opposite, the needle will deflect below the zero marking. Refer to the video below.

Sometimes, the connection terminals on the voltmeter and ammeter are different. Likewise, different types of wire with different connection heads have to be used. Refer to the video to see how are they connected in general.

Click here for another set up of a simple electrical circuit to determine the unknown resistor.

## Setting up a retort stand and pendulum experiment

In this post, we will be going to the basics of setting up the retort stand and pendulum experiment. Most probably, this will be the first experiment which you will perform in the lab. Let’s start with the setting up the retort stand, boss and the clamp.

Next we will take a look at how you set the up the apparatus for the pendulum experiment.

How is the period affected by length, mass of bob, and angle of release? Click on this post to find out more.

## Factors that affect the period T of a pendulum

Period, T, is the time taken for one complete oscillation.

The period T of a pendulum is affected by the following factors.
1) the length of the pendulum:
– the longer the length, the longer the period (i.e. swing slower)

2) the gravitational field strength, g
– the greater the g, the shorter the period (i.e. swing faster)
(e.g. the g on earth is 10 N/kg while that on the moon is 1.6 N/kg, hence the period on           the moon will be longer)

NOTE: (common misconceptions)
Period, T, of the pendulum is NOT affected by
1) the angle of release (as long as the angle of release is between 10 to 15 degrees)
(if the angle of release is small, the swing will not be fast and air resistance will not be         significant)
2) the mass of the pendulum ball

Refer to the video below for the demonstration of the above concepts.

Pendulum: Displacement-time vs KE-time graphs

Click here to understand the concepts of Displacement-time vs Kinetic Energy-time graphs of a pendulum

How to set up the pendulum experiment?