Period, T, is the time taken for one complete oscillation.
The period T of a pendulum is affected by the following factors.
1) the length of the pendulum:
– the longer the length, the longer the period (i.e. swing slower)
2) the gravitational field strength, g
– the greater the g, the shorter the period (i.e. swing faster)
(e.g. the g on earth is 10 N/kg while that on the moon is 1.6 N/kg, hence the period on the moon will be longer)
NOTE: (common misconceptions)
Period, T, of the pendulum is NOT affected by
1) the angle of release (as long as the angle of release is between 10 to 15 degrees)
(if the angle of release is small, the swing will not be fast and air resistance will not be significant)
2) the mass of the pendulum ball
Refer to the video below for the demonstration of the above concepts.
Pendulum: Displacement-time vs KE-time graphs
Click here to understand the concepts of Displacement-time vs Kinetic Energy-time graphs of a pendulum
How to set up the pendulum experiment?
Click here to view the video