Solutions: Option D – (i) and (iii)
(i) is true because as the rod cuts the magnetic field of the magnet, an induced emf is produced, according to Faraday’s Law. But NOT induced current as it is not a closed circuit. The end of the rod nearer is higher potential.
(ii) is false because as mentioned above, an induced emf will be produced when the rod cuts the magnetic field.
(iii) is true as the magnitude (value or size) of the induced emf depends on factors such as using stronger magnet and moving the rod faster. So this statement is true.
But do note that if the statement is phrased such that ‘…..induced emf ONLY depends on the magnetic field…….’, then this statement is false as moving the rod faster is another way, so using stronger magnet is NOT the only way.
Actual transformer. To increase the efficiency of the transformer, laminated iron sheet is used to make the core as it reduces eddy current from forming in the core which might lead to power lost through heat.
Solutions: Option C
Alternating current (AC) changes direction many times per second. Hence it is able to create a changing magnetic fluz which cuts the ring and hence opposes / repels the ring due to Lenz’s Law.
When direct current isused, the current initial will increase from min to max, hence creates a one-off changing expanding magnetic flux which still cuts the ring and causes it to float.
But once current stablises, there is no changing magnetic flux, hence ring will descend. As it descends, the fixed magnetic field of the solenoid cuts the ring again. But the magnitude of the induced current is smaller, hence opposing foce of the like poles will be smaller than the weight of ring. Hence ring descends and eventually rests on top of the coil.
Consider these two scenarios.
Scenario 1 A wire moves vertically between the magnets. An induced current is produced when the wire cuts the magnetic lines of force. The direction of the induced current is out of paper and magnets are stationary. Is the wire moving up, A, or downwards, B?
Solutions: Since force is applied to the wire and an induced current is produced, Fleming’s Right Hand Rule (FRHR) is applied here. Using FRHR, you will be able to determine that the direction of the motion of wire (force) is downwards (towards B).
Scenario 2 If now the wire is stationary, but the magnets move vertically instead. An induced current that flows out of paper is produced as the magnets move. Which direction does the magnets move, upwards (towards A) or downwards (towards B)?
Solutions: From Scenario 1, FRHR is applied to know that wire moves down in order to produce an induced current out of paper. Here, wire is stationary, and magnets move instead. One has to know that the effect of wire moving down (scenario 1) is the same as the magnets moving up (scenario 2). In both cases, the way the wire cuts the magnetic lines of force is the same. Hence, in this scenario, the magnets are moving up (towards A) in order to achieve induced current out of paper.